Particle analysis Chemical analysis Blood analysis Photo microscopy Spectroscopy X-ray radiography Infra-red thermography X-ray fluorescence spectrometry Photo scans from infrared to ultra-violet And more
No inorganic pigments present No substances manually applied to cloth No artistic substances are on the cloth No collagen binder as would be used with paint Blood tests positive for heme, bile, serum albumin and other blood components. The blood is AB positive with human DNA. “The blood marks seen on the shroud are consistent with a contact transfer to the cloth of blood clot exudates that would have resulted from major wounds inflicted on a man who died in the position of crucifixion.” -Dr. Al Adler
Purely superficial -- penetrates only top 2 micro-fibers. Does not penetrate the cloth. Yellowing of image is uniform in intensity No capillary action apparent No cementing of fibers to each other No substances between threads No directionality to image No outline to image The image is a negative Contains distance information similar to a topographical map.
"It is clear that there has been a direct contact of the Shroud with the body, which explains certain features such as the scourge marks, as well as the blood. However, while this type of contact might explain some features of the torso, it is totally incapable of explaining the image. There are no chemical or physical methods known which can account for the totality of the image, nor can any combination of physical, chemical, biological, or medical circumstances explain the image adequately."